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The ABC's of Behavior

The ABC’s of Behavior

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What Are the ABCs?

Molly’s daughter, Sarah, suddenly started running away when it was time for bed. Molly would chase her around the house, and this would cause bedtime to be much later. Molly thought this was because Sarah didn’t want to go to bed. However, after learning about antecedent, behavior, consequence data, or ABC, she realized Sarah was running away because she wanted her mother’s attention.

After this realization, Molly stopped chasing Sarah and would instead announce that it was time for bed and, without much ceremony, guide Sarah to her bedroom to put on her PJs. ABC data changed how Molly reacted, which in turn, changed Sarah’s behavior.

The purpose of ABC for autism is to record events or actions that occur before and after someone exhibits a behavior.

Some of you may be wondering, what even is an antecedent? Allow us to explain.

An antecedent is an event or behavior that occurs before a target behavior (i.e., the behavior of interest) occurs. Another way to think of an antecedent is as the “trigger” for a targeted behavior. Common triggers include sensory sensitivities to noises/lights, new routines, demands, transitions, and denied access to something preferred, such as a toy.

For the behavior portion, it means any action that a person exhibits following the antecedent. The last part of the term is consequence, which is what occurs immediately after the behavior. These consequences help practitioners determine what is maintaining a behavior. For example, if every time a child cries (behavior), he gets a chocolate bar (consequence), gaining the chocolate bar after crying would be the maintaining consequence.

The ABC's of Behavior
Practice the ABC with your child

The Purpose of ABC Data Collection

After learning about what the ABCs stand for, you may be wondering what the purpose is for this data. Recording ABC data is critical in applied behavior analysis (ABA) because it helps determine what leads to a child’s behavior. ABC Data collection allows us to recognize what the behavior can look like and whether it is positive or negative.

With more in-depth ABC data, we can also get an idea of how long the behavior may last, a certain time of day the behavior is more likely to occur, and it can help us be more in-tuned to environmental triggers that may cause the behavior at hand.

For practitioners in the field, using ABC data can help hypothesize the function of the behavior. In other words, this helps providers create an intervention plan for the person to target a behavior. It also helps with examining any patterns in what comes before and after the behavior.

For example, each time Jim sees the cookie jar (antecedent), he begins to scream and cry (behavior), which leads to his babysitter giving him a cookie to reduce his screaming and crying (consequence)

From an ABA viewpoint, recording ABC data in this scenario is extremely helpful because it can help a practitioner determine that Jim’s behavior is due to wanting a cookie. His behavior continues because he knows his babysitter will give him a cookie if he screams and cries.

Instead of screaming and crying, using ABA Jim can learn to ask for a cookie politely. From this data, his babysitter can also receive information about scenarios when it would be appropriate to give Jim a cookie but to not do so when he screams and cries.

How to Take ABC Data

Parents, teachers, caregivers, practitioners, and therapists are examples of the many individuals who can record ABC data. Not everyone has prior experience using ABC data, so keep reading for helpful tips on making the process (especially if it is your first time)as smooth as possible.

You can easily access and print many data sheets on the internet. All ABC datasheets will include separate boxes labeled “Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence,” but it is best to choose a data sheet that is the most user-friendly to you!  There are also tons of video resources on YouTube and via Google search that explain how to take ABC data.

When beginning to take data, it is best to not overwhelm yourself and take data for the whole day. Start by taking data a few times through the day when you anticipate the behavior or while it is happening. Once you begin writing down what you witness, you want to be as clear and descriptive as possible while keeping in mind that you’ll be looking for what comes before the behavior, what the behavior looks like, and what comes after the behavior.

After becoming comfortable with tracking these three steps, you can start recording how long the behavior lasts, the time of day, and how many times a day it occurs. Parents should take ABC data until they feel they have enough to form conclusions about the behavior.

The ABCs may be unfamiliar at first, but it helps us track behaviors, and learn more about a child’s needs and areas of improvement. Ultimately, getting to know the ABCs allows us to be one step closer to progress!

Tips for Taking ABC Data

There are multiple ways you can approach recording ABC data. Some people prefer more detailed sheets where you can write down specific actions and the time they occurred, others prefer a simplified sheet where they can jot down a few notes about the behavior.

No matter which method you prefer, here are a few general tips to guide your ABA data collection:

  • Record objective data: Recording a challenging behavior can cause you to feel frustrated or upset as you try to understand why your child is acting this way. Try to leave your personal feelings out of your recordings and record the behavior you are observing objectively.
  • Write down direct observations: It can be tempting to guess your child’s motivations behind their actions. Write down only what you observe to improve the accuracy of your data.
  • Don’t interpret the behavior: It can be tempting to analyze why your child is acting in a certain way. However, if we knew this motivation, there would be no need to record this data. When recoding, write down what you see or hear and leave your interpretations for a later time.

Looking for Behavioral Therapy? Try Early Autism Services Today

If you’re looking for additional ways to help your child improve their behavior, Early Austim Services is here to help. We offer a variety of applied behavior analysis therapy options that can take place either in your home or at one of our centers across the United States, Australia, and India. Our primary goal is to help your child reach their full potential, and we will cater our programs to fit your child’s exact needs.

To take advantage of our services, please schedule a free consultation today!

Potty Training thumbnail

Potty Training Tips for Children With Autism

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Potty Training Tips for Children with Autism

Potty training is an obstacle all parents and their children must navigate together. Children with autism have varying skills, needs and abilities that may pose unique challenges in the potty training process. However, you can reach this milestone step by step with time, patience and the right resources.

While toilet training a child with autism can be challenging, it’s worth the effort to help them become more independent. This guide will explain when and how to potty train your child and offer tips to make the process go as smoothly as possible.

Things to Consider Before Potty Training

When you compare yourself to others, it’s easy to become frustrated or disappointed if potty training doesn’t go as smoothly as you anticipated. It’s important to remember that every potty training experience is different, and children with autism may require more patience and attention than other kids. Here are some obstacles you could face:

  • Creating new routines: If your child is used to a rigid schedule in a consistent environment, introducing potty training can be a challenging adjustment.
  • Overcoming communication barriers: Depending on your child’s ability to communicate verbally, they may have trouble telling you when they have to use the bathroom.
  • Understanding bodily functions: Some children need time to understand the connection between the feeling of having to urinate and actual urination.

How to Know When It’s Time to Start

There is no specific age to start potty training. Children on the autism spectrum have unique needs and abilities that will impact their potty training timeline. Children with autism rarely demonstrate toilet readiness at the same age as their peers, and most aren’t ready to learn until they’re several years older.

Potty training too early can be ineffective and frustrating. Waiting for the right time ensures your child is willing and able to learn these new skills. Your child might be displaying signs that they are ready to potty train if they:

  • Tell you or gesture when they’re wet or dry.
  • Try to take off their diaper when it’s soiled.
  • Cry or seem uncomfortable in a dirty diaper.
  • Urinate and have bowel movements on a consistent schedule.
  • Can stay dry for at least one hour.
  • Can follow simple directions.
  • Can communicate their needs.
  • Feel comfortable in the bathroom.
  • Are willing to sit on the toilet.

Children who exhibit these signs recognize when they have soiled themselves and no longer enjoy wearing diapers. They show that their body is ready to use the bathroom on a consistent schedule, which is crucial for toilet training. They understand directions and can communicate their needs somehow — verbally, using pictures or with a device.

Some children may feel weary of the bathroom at first. It’s important for your child to feel safe and comfortable in the bathroom before you start potty training. When you reward your child for spending time in the bathroom with candy or an exciting toy, they will begin to see it as a fun place. Listening to music or playing a game will also help them feel happy and at ease in the space.

The final step before potty training is making sure that your child is comfortable and willing to sit on the toilet. A large toilet seat isn’t designed for tiny bottoms. Look for a child’s potty seat that fits on top of the existing seat. They come in fun designs with your child’s favorite characters, and some even play music. Letting your child choose their own seat will help them get excited about potty training.

If that isn’t enough to make them want to sit on the toilet, you can gradually build this skill. Place them on the toilet and let them get up right before they start crying or acting upset. This helps them learn that getting up is dependent on them sitting calmly.

As they start to feel more comfortable, you can slowly increase their time on the toilet by a few seconds until they can sit there for long enough to urinate or have a bowel movement. It’s crucial to praise and reward your child as they master each skill, so they have a positive experience and are willing to continue learning.

Praise your child for going potty

When your child shows all of these skills, you can start the potty training process.

How to Prepare for Potty Training

Potty training is a process that takes several days to initiate. If your child has autism, it can take even longer. When you’re ready to start potty training, it’s helpful to prepare in advance to make the process go as smoothly as possible. Here are some important steps to take before you begin:

1. Clear Your Schedule

Starting the process for toilet training a child with autism requires at least one dedicated week of your time. Many families choose to start the process over the summer or during a holiday break when they can take off work and children are out of school.

It’s crucial to clear your schedule so you can give your child undivided attention during this time. You should devote the entire week to following your potty training routine and rushing your child to the toilet if needed to prevent accidents in between sit times. Choose the best time that works for your family to focus on reaching this important milestone.

2. Let People Know

It takes a village to potty train a child. Let your child’s teachers and care providers know that you’re starting potty training. They may be able to help you through this process.

The principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) can help increase the success of your toilet training process. If your child has an ABA provider, they can work with you to create a program that works for a child with autism. The potty training process included in this guide incorporates many ABA strategies.

3. Protect Your Home

When you start potty training, accidents are bound to happen. Preparing your home ahead of time can help protect carpet and furniture and make cleanup easier. Some people use plastic to cover fabric surfaces or rent a special cleaning device. Consider keeping a stockpile of cleaning supplies and paper towels on hand. It’s important to remember that, while potty training can be messy, it’s worth it to help your child learn a lifelong skill.

4. Gather Supplies

During potty training, children are encouraged to drink more liquids so they have extra opportunities to practice urinating on the toilet. Parents can stock up on their favorite drinks and maybe a few snacks, so their child is more likely to consume fluids.

While you’re in the food aisle, grab some small candies or treats that you can use to reward your child when they use the bathroom successfully. If your child isn’t food motivated, you could also motivate them with small, inexpensive toys. It’s essential to choose something that they don’t usually get and are excited to earn.

You should also consider stocking up on underwear, socks and clothing that may become soiled during this time. If your child has several accidents, it helps to have a stockpile of fresh clothes. It’s also a good idea to purchase extra laundry supplies and stain remover to wash soiled clothing.

Another helpful tip is to purchase a few activities or toys to entertain your child while they’re sitting on the toilet. You can use items you already have around the house, but sometimes new things can make the child’s experience a little more exciting.

5. Prepare Your Child

One of the most important steps to prepare for potty training is getting your child ready to start the process. Spend time talking to them about potty training and answer any questions they may have. Children’s books with pictures can help explain the process in a way kids can understand. Animated videos featuring your child’s favorite characters can be even more effective.

After introducing them to potty training with books and other resources, you can take them into the bathroom so they get used to spending time there. Showing them their new toilet seats and bathroom toys can help them get excited about learning how to use the potty. You can also show them the treats they can earn for using the toilet.

Use books and resources on the potty

Another method some people find helpful is to model going to the bathroom in front of your child. If you feel comfortable with this strategy, it can provide real-life exposure to help your child learn.

The Potty Training Process

When your child is ready and you’ve finished the preparations, the toilet training process can begin! The following strategies will help you successfully potty train a child with autism:

1. Getting the Day Started

Potty training begins the moment your child wakes up. Take them to the toilet right away and set a timer for 10 minutes. If they empty their bladder before the 10 minutes is over, they earn a reward and get to leave the toilet for the remainder of those 10 minutes plus an additional five-minute break. If they don’t urinate within those 10 minutes, they still get to leave the toilet for a five-minute break, but they don’t receive a reward.

2. Push Food and Liquids

It’s important to give your child plenty of liquids during the day to ensure they need to urinate frequently. Fibrous foods are also a good idea to encourage bowel movements. They’re going to spend a lot of time on the toilet, so it helps to give them maximum opportunities to use the bathroom successfully.

3. Repeat the Process

When the first five-minute break is over, praise your child if they stay dry and take them back to the toilet to sit for another 10 minutes or until they urinate. You’ll repeat this process until your child has been successful for one hour.

Be patient if your child doesn’t urinate or if they have an accident during their break. Some children take more time to learn than others. It’s important not to scold them for having an accident. Potty training is a process, and it may take a while before you start to see the results of your hard work.

4. Move Up a Level

There are 12 different levels to this potty training procedure. As your child progresses, they will spend less time on the toilet and more time off, as they gradually become more successful staying dry and eliminating on the toilet.

In the beginning, it can seem like you’re constantly switching back and forth between the bathroom and taking breaks. While some levels require significant effort, they’re necessary to give your child plenty of opportunities to use the toilet with a short enough break that they can stay dry between intervals.

When they’re successful with an interval for one hour, you can progress to the next level. For example, if your child successfully urinates within 10 minutes of sitting on the toilet and stays dry during the five-minute break for an entire hour, they can progress to level 2. If they’re successful at level 2 for one hour, they can move to level 3 and so on until they reach level 12. Here is the schedule for all 12 levels:

  • Level 1: Spend 10 minutes on the toilet and 5 minutes off
  • Level 2: Spend 10 minutes on the toilet and 10 minutes off
  • Level 3: Spend 5 minutes on the toilet and 15 minutes off
  • Level 4: Spend 5 minutes on the toilet and 25 minutes off
  • Level 5: Spend 5 minutes on the toilet and 35 minutes off
  • Level 6: Spend 5 minutes on the toilet and 45 minutes off
  • Level 7: Spend 5 minutes on the toilet and 60 minutes off
  • Level 8: Spend 5 minutes on the toilet and 90 minutes off
  • Level 9: Spend 5 minutes on the toilet and 2 hours off
  • Level 10: Spend 5 minutes on the toilet and 2.5 hours off
  • Level 11: Spend 5 minutes on the toilet and 3 hours off
  • Level 12: Spend 5 minutes on the toilet and 4 hours off
Potty Training Schedule

Tips for Potential Challenges and Setbacks

Here are some additional tips to help you overcome some challenges that you may experience:

  • Getting stuck at a level: If you’re having trouble moving past a certain level, try reducing liquids back to a typical amount to help your child stay dry. You should also consider if the rewards you’ve chosen are motivating enough. Make sure you offer plenty of praise and encouragement when your child stays dry and uses the toilet. They may need more time to adjust to that level of skill.
  • Incorporating real-life activities: During the first six levels of potty training, it’s best to stay in the home where your child can quickly get to the toilet. When they can stay dry for at least an hour, you can start incorporating real-life activities back into your schedule. If they go to school, their teacher or care provider can help maintain their bathroom schedule.
  • Training regression: It’s normal for some children to backslide for many different reasons. If your child starts having consistent accidents at a certain level, you can shift them back to the previous level for several hours until you think they’re ready to try the next level again.

Get Help From Early Autism Services

When you’re ready to take your first steps toward potty training, Early Autism Services can provide you with effective strategies to assist you through the process. We understand every child with autism is unique, which is why we take time to get to know your child and create a personalized program tailored to their needs and abilities.

For more information on potty training children on the autism spectrum, check out our free self-guided courses for parents. If you’re interested in ABA therapy services for your child, request a free consultation today!

Request a consultation for ABA services
Father Teaching Child to Bruch His Teeth

Teeth-Brushing: Helpful Tips for Teaching Your Child to Brush Their Teeth

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Ensuring your child’s hygiene is up kept is one of the main tasks in our parenting role. However, important tasks such as toothbrushing can be difficult for many children with autism spectrum disorder. Tooth brushing prevents plaque, cavities, endless trips to the dentist, so how do we teach our kids to brush their teeth independently while also staying engaged? Early Autism Services has some teeth-brushing tips that will make the process easier for you and your child.

Father Teaching Child to Bruch His Teeth

Break it Down Into Small Steps

When beginning to teach your child how to brush their teeth, it is best to start by breaking it down into smaller steps. When breaking these steps down, get creative! Find ways to make it engaging for your child to remember all the steps to teeth-brushing.

Some suggestions include creating visuals in the bathroom to indicate where to brush or an eye-catching step-by-step list. Even making up a song or finding one online can make things fun for kiddos. Children that have difficulty knowing how long to brush can now brush their teeth for the song’s duration.  Planning a set time for children to brush their teeth is an easy way to help your child reach their twice-a-day teeth cleaning requirement.

Find a child-friendly toothbrush to increase their interest, it can feature their favorite character. Most toothbrushes and toothpaste have the recommended child’s age on them which can make purchasing one easier.

Reward Your Child’s Progress

As you begin to teach your child how to brush their teeth, remember to use lots of praise and rewards for appropriate behavior. Rewards can be songs, tickles, bubbles, or whatever your child prefers best as they improve. With these essential tips, your child should be able to brush their teeth independently in no time!

More Tips You May Find Helpful

Finding a tooth brushing method that works best for you and your child may take some time. Keep trying new techniques and approach each tooth brushing session with an open mind. Some additional tips that may help your child include:

  • Use a timer: Seeing how much time your child has left may improve their focus as they brush their teeth.
  • Look for different toothpaste flavors: Finding mild flavors such as bubblegum, orange, or even flavorless if your child does not enjoy mint toothpaste.
  • Use a power toothbrush: After mastering a manual toothbrush, the next step is to try a power toothbrush that does the brushing for your child.

Contact Early Autism Services Today

At Early Autism Services, we are passionate about helping your child reach their full potential. We offer various applied behavior analysis therapy services in many locations across the United States, Australia, and India.

If you have any questions or would like additional information regarding self-help skills, don’t hesitate to reach out to us and schedule a free consultation. Our team is more than happy to walk you through our programs, answer questions, or talk through costs and insurance.

During your free consultation with us, one of our clinicians will sit down with you and your child to explain our programs. After this consultation, we’ll create a personalized therapy program to help your child develop their skills and learn new ones!

Schedule a free consultation today. We look forward to helping your child grow to their full potential.